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Glossary

Amino Acid Chelate

A term used to describe a mineral that has been bonded to an amino acid, i.e Magnesium Aspartate. The body can absorb amino acid chelated minerals more easily than standard forms i.e Magnesium Oxide.

Barley

A hardy grain that dates back to the Stone Age. Used in cereals, breads, and soups.

Bioperine

Bioperine is a standardized piperine extract obtained from the fruits of the Piper nigrum L. (black pepper) and/or Piper longum L. (long pepper) plants that are cultivated in the damp, nutrient-rich soil regions of south India. The delicate pepper berries are hand harvested just prior to ripening and then sun dried to assure optimum maturity and quality.

The extract of piperine, developed by Sabinsa Corporation in its patented form of Bioperine, has been clinically tested in the United States and shown to significantly enhance the bioavailability of supplemented nutrients through increased absorption.

Please visit the official Bioperine website for further information. www.BIOPERINE.com

Biotin

Biotin is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates (like the other B vitamins), and in the synthesis of hormones and cholesterol.

Boron

Boron helps the body to form and maintain calcium in bones.

BV

BV or Biological Value is a measure of the efficient utilisation of the proteins in the body. Whey Protein has a high BV compared to other selected protein sources.

Calcium

The most abundent mineral in our body. Vital for formation of bones, nails and teeth. Also a plays a role in muscle contraction and heart function.

Creatine

In 1832 the French scientist Chevreul discovered a new ingredient of meat to which he gave the name Creatine, according to the source from which it was extracted (Kreas: Greek for flesh). The German scientist Justus von Liebig confirmed that Creatine is a regular constituent of flesh. Creatine levels in wild animals were 10 times higher compared to captive animals suggesting that physical activity might have an influence on the amount of Creatine present in flesh. A meat extract (Liebigs Fleischextrakt) was the only source for Creatine supplementation over the next century.

Anecdotal reports in the early 1990's suggested that Creatine Monohydrate supplementation might improve sport performance. British track and field 1992 Olympic champions Linford Christie (100 m dash) and Sally Gunnell (400 m hurdles) reportedly used Creatine Monohydrate, as did the Cambridge University rowing team in training for three months before defeating the heavily favored Oxford. Numerous controlled clinical trials followed in the upcoming years proving the benefits of Creatine supplementation in different sports.

Many celebrated professional athletes and Olympic champions acknowledge Creatine use and estimated 80% of the athletes at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta used Creatine. Mark McGwire, one of major league baseball's greatest sluggers, used Creatine during the 1998 season and his legendary race to set the single season home run record, making Creatine Monohydrate the most popular sports nutrition in the US. Creatine supplementation has become a common practice among professional, elite, collegiate and amateur athletes to enhance exercise performance. Today, Creatine Monohydrate is one of the best-studied supplements in the field of sports nutrition and its proven efficacy as an ergogenic substance was reviewed and accepted by numerous authorities.

Digezyme

DIGEZYME® is a multi-enzyme complex consisting mainly of amylase starch hydrolyzing enzyme), protease (protein hydrolyzing enzyme)and lipase (fat hydrolyzing enzymes). In addition to these, it also contains cellulase (that hydrolyzes cellulose) and lactase (that hydrolyzes lactose). The enzymes in this complex are of microbial origin (fungal amylase, lipase, lactase, cellulase; and a bacterial neutral protease). The product is therefore entirely of non-animal origin.

Ester

Esters are usually encountered as sweet smelling organic compounds commonly produced by many plants and fruits. However, the most common esters found in nature are fats and vegetable oils, which are esters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Folacin

Folacin acts as a coenzyme (with vitamin B-12 and vitamin C) in the breakdown (metabolism) of proteins and in the synthesis of new proteins. It is necessary for the production of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA (which controls heredity), as well as tissue growth and cell function.

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose levels. It compares foods gram for gram of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indexes, an example would be Maltodextrin. The blood glucose response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that breakdown slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the blood stream, have low glycemic indexes - and example would be whole grain barley or oats.

HMB

HMB is short for beta-hydroxy beta-methylbuyrate. It is a metabolite of L-Leucine, and has been studied for it effects on lean mass and strength.

L-Carnosine

L-Carnosine is comprised of two amino acids, histidine and beta-alanine, and is termed a di-peptide. L-Carnosine's role in the body diverse and pro-found, it is found naturally in muscles, brain, liver and other vital tissues.

Lactospore

LACTOSPORE is a lactic acid bacillus preparation manufactured and distributed by the SABINSA CORPORATION. The following link reviews the background, nutritional and therapeutic aspects and current status of the use of lactic acid bacillus preparations, and presents arguments for the superiority of LACTOSPORE over other such products in the market, known as "probiotics", used in microbiotherapy. Lactospore pro-biotic spores are found in numerous products offered by Reflex Nutrition. Please visit www.LACTOSPORE.com for more information.

Micellar Casein

Technically referred to as Total Milk Protein but marketed as Micellar Casein. Fresh skim milk is ultra filtered, in much the same process used to make whey protein, to produce a pure un-undenatured milk protein. The resulting material contains 80% casein and 20% whey. This probably the least processed of all milk proteins. Often used in formulations where a time release effect is required.

MRP

A product designed to replace or add to meals. A meal replacement will provide quality protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals. See The Meal Replacement Progen Website

Oats

(Avena sativa) A cereal grass cultivated for its edible seed, used by both man and animals. Most commonly used to make the famous breakfast of the Scotsman - Porridge.

Organic

Organic agriculture is a safe, sustainable farming system, producing healthy crops and livestock without damage to the environment. It avoids the use of artificial chemical fertilisers and pesticides on the land, relying instead on developing a healthy, fertile soil and growing a mixture of crops. In this way, the farm remains biologically balanced, with a wide variety of beneficial insects and other wildlife to act as natural predators for crop pests and a soil full of micro-organisms and earthworms to maintain its vitality.

Organic is a term defined by law and all organic food production and processing is governed by a strict set of rules.

P E R

PER or Protein Efficiency Ratio is a measurement of the efficient utilization of the proteins in the body. Whey protein has a high PER compared to other selected protein sources.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin which plays an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division and the immune system.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism, nerve conduction and for the functioning of the heart and muscles. A deficiency of thiamine can cause weakness, fatigue, and nerve damage.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12's primary functions are in the formation of red blood cells and the maintenence of a healthy nervous system. B12 is necessary for the rapid synthesis of DNA during cell division.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is a water-soluble vitamin which is needed to process amino acids and fats, activate vitamin B6 and folic acid, and help convert carbohydrates into energy.

Vitamin B3

The body uses the water-soluble vitamin B3(niacin) in the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates. It is also needed to form fat from carbohydrates and to process alcohol.

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is needed for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Vitamin B5 is part of the vitamin B complex and plays a number of essential metabolic roles in the human body, including some of those related to the production of adrenal gland hormones and the production of energy.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential in protein metabolism. It facilitates the release of glycogen from the liver and muscle and is involved in the metabolism of fat and nucleic acids. Vitamin B6 also helps to maintain the proper balance of sodium and potassium, which regulate body fluids and promotes the healthy functioning of the nervous and muscular system.

Vitamin C

An antioxidant vitamin that protects cells from oxidative damage. Vitamin C is necessary for the production of collagen, hormones and neurotransmitters, it may have a role in fighting infection.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for mineral metabolism and may play a role in immune function. Vitamin D is manufactured within the skin when exposed to sunlight.

Vitamin E

As an antioxidant, Vitamin E helps protect cell membranes, lipoproteins, fats and vitamin A from destructive oxidation. Vitamin E also helps protect red blood cells and prevent such health problems as heart disease and cancer.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is used in the body to control blood clotting and is essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls the clotting.

Whey Protein

Whey protein is a very high quality protein that is derived from sweet dairy whey. It has a very high biological value and many other attributes. We strongly recommend viewing of our FAQs